The scale is one of the three pieces of domain data necessary to create a Dinero object. It's conceptually close to the currency exponent but serves the purpose of expressing precision as accurately as possible.

Most of the time, you don't need to specify the scale. It defaults to the currency exponent.

```
import { dinero, toSnapshot } from 'dinero.js';
import { USD } from '@dinero.js/currencies';
const d = dinero({ amount: 5000, currency: USD });
const { exponent } = USD; // `exponent` is 2
const { scale } = toSnapshot(d); // `scale` is 2 (picked up `USD.exponent`)
```

This looks redundant. Why do we need a scale when we have the currency exponent?

While you may think of money as its value in major or minor currency units—value that one can actually *pay*—it often needs a more precise representation. A good example is when you factor in tax rates, which are often fractional values. For example, let's say you have an item that costs €19.95 with a VAT rate of 5.5%: you end up with a final price of €21.04725. This gets rounded when it's time to pay, but **it's crucial to preserve the precision until the end of calculations**, especially if you're performing many of them.

The scale is essential to **accurately represent monetary values without losing precision.** It automatically adapts as needed to ensure you always retain accurate amounts.

Here's what the 5.5% VAT rate calculation looks like with Dinero.js:

```
import { dinero, add, multiply, toSnapshot } from 'dinero.js';
import { EUR } from '@dinero.js/currencies';
const price = dinero({ amount: 1995, currency: EUR });
const tax = multiply(price, { amount: 55, scale: 3 });
const total = add(price, tax);
toSnapshot(total);
// {
// amount: 2104725,
// currency: {
// code: 'EUR',
// base: 10,
// exponent: 2,
// },
// scale: 5,
// }
```

The final Dinero object `total`

has transparently adjusted to a `scale`

of 5 to satisfy the need for extra precision. The amount of 2104725 can be interpreted as 21.04725 based on that scale instead of 21047.25 based on the currency exponent.

Note the usage of a scale when specifying the number by which to multiply. We want to calculate 5.5% of the price, or multiply it by 0.055 (5.5 / 100). We don't want to use floats, so instead, we're passing 55 with a scale of 3 (55 / 10^3 = 0.055).

## Copy linkWhen to specify a scale manually

Most of the time, you don't need to specify the scale. You can let Dinero.js pick it up from the currency exponent. However, **there are times when you need to specify more precise amounts.**

For example, imagine you're in the hardware business. You're likely not selling screws one by one but by kits instead. Let's say you sell kits of 250 for $8.75; you still might need to represent the price of a single screw for admin purposes. In this case, a screw costs $0.035, which can't be accurately represented with two digits, so you can manually pass a larger `scale`

.

```
import { dinero, toSnapshot } from 'dinero.js';
import { USD } from '@dinero.js/currencies';
const price = dinero({ amount: 35, currency: USD, scale: 3 });
toSnapshot(total);
// {
// amount: 35,
// currency: {
// code: 'USD',
// base: 10,
// exponent: 2,
// },
// scale: 3,
// }
```

## Copy linkCalculate objects of different scales

When calculating Dinero objects, you don't have to care about their scale. Dinero.js automatically converts objects to the safest scale so you don't lose precision.

```
import { dinero, add, subtract, allocate } from 'dinero.js';
import { USD } from '@dinero.js/currencies';
const d1 = dinero({ amount: 400, currency: USD });
const d2 = dinero({ amount: 104545, currency: USD, scale: 4 });
add(d1, d2); // a Dinero object with amount 144545 and scale 4
subtract(d2, d1); // a Dinero object with amount 64545 and scale 4
```

You might also need to use fractional values. For example, you may need to calculate 19.6% of a total cart, or convert a Dinero object to another currency with a 0.82 conversion rate.

In such cases, you shouldn't use floats, but scaled multipliers. For example, instead of 0.82, you should pass 82 and a scale of 2.

```
import { dinero, multiply, allocate } from 'dinero.js';
import { USD } from '@dinero.js/currencies';
const d = dinero({ amount: 400, currency: USD });
multiply(d, { amount: 82, scale: 2 }); // a Dinero object with amount 32800 and scale 4
const [d1, d2] = allocate(d1, [505, 495], { scale: 1 }); // translates to ratios 50.5 and 49.5
d1; // a Dinero object with amount 2020 and scale 3
d2; // a Dinero object with amount 1980 and scale 3
```

## Copy linkTrimming scale

When calculating Dinero objects of different scales, Dinero.js goes for the safest one to avoid losing precision. This means you can end up with a higher scale than necessary.

In the previous example, both output objects have a trailing zero, meaning they could be adjusted to one order of magnitude down with a smaller scale. While using high scales isn't a problem per se, it does take more space, and can end up reaching the minimum or maximum safe IEEE 754 integer.

In such cases, you can trim down Dinero objects to drop useless precision.

```
import { dinero, add, trimScale } from 'dinero.js';
import { USD } from '@dinero.js/currencies';
const d1 = dinero({ amount: 100, currency: USD });
const d2 = dinero({ amount: 2000000, currency: USD, scale: 6 });
const d3 = add(d1, d2); // a Dinero object with amount 3000000 and scale 6
trimScale(d3); // a Dinero object with amount 300 and scale 2
```

The `trimScale`

function trims Dinero objects down to the smallest, safest possible scale, down to the currency exponent at most.